Publications

Some publications are only available in their original language (Norwegian).
All publications from the ZEN Research Centre are financially supported by the Research Council of Norway through its funding scheme for Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (grant no. 257660) and the Centre’s partners.

Our latest scientific publications

All our publications

Rostrup, Petter (2019) A Distributed-to Centralised architectural model for Smart City applications and services through container orchestration
Master Thesis,

Master Thesis,
NTNU, Trondheim,

Bygg representerer en vesentlig faktor i en framtid med lave utslipp av drivhusgasser. En betydelig konsekvens av deres lange livsløp gjør at det haster å innføre standarder med toppmoderne prestasjoner for å unngå betydelig låsningsrisiko. Hittil har Livssyklusanalysestudier (LCA) betraktet bygg, mobilitet og energisystemer hver for seg. Nullutslippsnabolag (ZEN) gir en unik mulighet til å kombinere disse elementene, og dermed bidra til å begrense klimaendringene. I Norge har forskningssenteret på ZEN i smart byer (https://fmezen.no/) et mål om å tilrettelegge for overgangen til lavkarbonsamfunn ved å utvikle bærekraftige nabolag med null drivhusgassutslipp.

I dette studiet blir det brukt en LCA modell for nabolag som er basert på en modul struktur bestående av fem fysiske elementer; bygg, mobilitet, infrastruktur, nettverk og on-site energiinfrastruktur på Ydalir, et av ZEN senterets pilotprosjekter. Den gjennomførte LCAen viser at uansett hvilket scenario som blir vurdert, klarer ikke ZEN Ydalir innenfor nåværende plan å nå deres ambisiøse mål om null utslipp. Til tross for dette, representerer nabolagets resultater et viktig steg mot et nullutslippssamfunn, og påpeker flere vesentlige tiltak for forbedringer mot målet om nullutslippsnabolag. Resultatene viser at bruksfasen i mobilitet er kilden til en betydelig andel av de totale drivhusgassene fra nabolaget, og representerer 42-46% av de totale utslippene. Når kun livssyklussteget materialer er tatt i betraktning, er bygg og mobilitet kildene til henholdsvis 37% og 38% av drivhusgassene, i begge scenariene. Dette tydeliggjør bruksfasen til mobilitet og materialstegene til bygg og mobilitet som de beste områdene for forbedring.

Modellen og dataen som er benyttet i dette arbeidet har flere usikkerhetsfaktorer. Parametere som er antatt å være knyttet til høy usikkerhet eller som er store bidragsytere til miljøpåvirkningen, er inkludert i en sensitivitetsanalyse og er kalkulert og diskutert. Scenarier basert på tiltak for å oppnå nullutslipp er også analysert og diskutert.

Buildings represent a critical piece of a low-carbon future and their long lifetime necessitates urgent adoption of state-of-the-art performance standards to avoid significant lock-in risk. So far, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies have assessed buildings, mobility and energy systems mainly individually. Zero Emission Neighbourhoods (ZEN) gives a unique chance to combine these elements and thereby contribute to climate change mitigation. In Norway, the Research Centre on ZEN in Smart Cities (https://fmezen.no/) has a goal to enable the transition to a low carbon society by developing sustainable neighbourhoods with zero Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.

In this study, it was applied an LCA model for neighbourhoods based on a modular structure with five physical elements; buildings, mobility, infrastructure, networks and on-site energy infrastructure on Ydalir, a pilot project of the ZEN Centre. The performed LCA revealed that regardless of which scenario considered, the ZEN Ydalir does not manage to achieve their ambitious goal of zero emissions with the present plan. However, the neighbourhood’s results represent an important step towards a zero emission society, highlighting several crucial measures for further improvement in the field of ZENs. The results further show that the operation of mobility is the source of a major part of the GHG emissions, accounting for 42-46% of the total. When considering the life cycle stage materials, the buildings and mobility represent 37% and 38% respectively of the GHG emissions from materials in both scenarios. Thus, operation stage of mobility and the material stage of the buildings and mobility have been highlighted as the best options for improvement.

The model and data used in this work is associated with several uncertainty factors. Parameters assumed to have significant uncertainties, or are large contributors to the environmental impact, are included in a sensitivity analysis and have been calculated and discussed. Scenarios based on different measures to achieve zero emissions have also been analysed and discussed.


Master Thesis,
NTNU, Trondheim,

Denne oppgaven følger Design Science Research metoden og utforsker hvordan virtuell virkelighet-teknologier (VR) kan bli benyttet for å visualisere utslipps-data i nullutslippsområder. For å oppnå dette ble en virtuell virkelighet-applikasjon, kalt ZENVR, utviklet. Denne ble evaluert gjennom semi-strukturerte ekspert-intervjuer. De innsamlede dataene ble strukturert og analysert ved å delvis anvende prinsippene fra Grounded Theory. Systemets brukervennlighet ble evaluert gjennom brukertester med et tilhørende spørreskjema.

Resultatene indikerer at virtuell virkelighet er en egnet plattform for å kommunisere og gi kontekst til komplekse data, og at ZENVR er et egnet verktøy for å visualisere Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) i nullutslippsområder. Resultatene viser også at ved å utnytte de altoppslukende egenskapene til virtuel virkelighet er det mulig å skape en opplevelse for brukeren som kan gjøre et vedvarende inntrykk. Flere bruksområder for ZENVR har blitt oppdaget: Engasjere innbyggere, promotering og reklame for nullutslippsområder, verktøy for tverrfaglig kommunikasjon og samarbeid mellom profesjonnelle.

This project follows the Design Science Research methodology and explores how virtual reality technology may be utilized for visualizing emission data in Zero Emission Neighbourhoods (ZENs). The project involved developing a virtual reality application named ZENVR, which were evaluated through semi-structured expert interviews. The data collected was structured and analyzed by partially applying Grounded Theory. Furthermore, the usability of the system has been evaluated through user test with an attached questionnaire.

The results indicate that virtual reality is a suitable platform for communicating and contextualizing complex data and that ZENVR is an appropriate tool for visualizing Key Performance Indicators in ZENs. The findings also show that by utilizing the immersive properties of virtual reality, it is possible to create an experience for the user and subsequently making a lasting impression. Several areas of use for ZENVR were discovered, including citizen engagement, promotion and the advertisement of ZENs, tool for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration between professionals.


Gram, Oda Kristine (2019) Is CO2 the best marker for control of demand-controlled ventilation?
Master Thesis,

Master Thesis,
NTNU, Trondheim,

Nå som mesteparten av verdens befolkning bor i byer, er forståelsen av byene sine systemer stadig viktigere. I dette prosjektet utviklet forfatteren et modulært agentbasert system for modellering av byer som komplekse systemer. Modellen ble validert ved å kjøre tester og eksperimenter som viste bruken av modellen som et hjelpemiddel for å forstå trafikkmønstrene i en by. Forsøkene var simuleringsløp som hadde forskjellige verdier for priser for busser og biler, variasjoner på inngangssteder til byen og varierende mengder parkeringsplasser. Systemet vil bli videreutviklet som en annen masteroppgave der fokuset vil være på elnettet og samspillet med andre systemer i byen. Det blir lagt fram et argument for fordelene med å bruke modulære og gjenbrukbare systemer i dette feltet.

With most of the world population living in cities, the understanding of these systems is increasingly important. In this project the author developed a modular agent-based system for modeling cities as complex systems. The model was validated by running tests and experiments that demonstrated its uses as an aid in understanding the emergent traffic patterns in a city. The experiments were simulation runs that had differing values for prices for buses and cars, variations on points of entry to the city, and varying amounts of parking spaces. The system will be further developed as another master’s thesis where the focus will be on the electrical grid and its mutual interaction with other systems in the city. An argument is made for the benefits of using modular and reusable systems in this field.


Master Thesis,
NTNU, Trondheim,

The bottom-up approach model developed earlier by Næss et al. (2018) is extended to include the dynamic material flow and embodied emissions from materials during con- struction, renovation and demolition activities of a neighbourhood in time. The model is then applied to the ZEN pilot project Ydalir in order to estimate the material flows and the associated embodied emissions of the building stock of the neighbourhood for a 60 years timeframe.
In order to achieve that, the model is made up of three parts that consist of: (i) sim- ulating the long-term building stock of the neighbourhood and identifying construction, renovation and demolition over time, (ii) setting up the material inventories that charac- terize the building stock and determining the emission intensities of those materials, (iii) combining (i) and (ii) to calculate the dynamic material use and embodied emissions for the neighbourhood over time. The neighbourhood is characterized by 15 initial individual archetypes according to type of building, renovation stage and cohort.
The dynamic model of Ydalir indicates that construction and renovation activities mobilize a total of 116 kton of materials with 82.6 kton CO2-eq of embodied emissions between 2019 and 2080. Initial construction being the activity that drives most use of materials and embodied emissions. The major source of embodied emissions are the PV panels that are part of the energy system in the residential buildings, this is due to the high carbon intensity of the system but also its need to be replaced every 30 years. Wood is the second most used material in the neighbourhood, as well as the second most accountable for the neighbourhood’s embodied emissions. In terms of material flow, concrete is the dominant material, more than half of the material input to the neighbourhood is concrete.
The sensitivity analysis suggests that variations in renovation rates, material invento- ries and emission intensities of materials have an effect in the total embodied emissions, with room to reduce embodied emissions. Additionally, the material specifications and emission intensities that are selected in the material categories of concrete, wood, glass and membrane can have a greater impact in the total embodied emissions for the case of Ydalir.
The model is robust because its methodology is thorough, transparent and detailed, yet, the assumptions made and lack of knowledge about the future limit the certainty and accuracy of of the results for Ydalir. Nevertheless, some strategies related to embodied emissions and material flow of the building stock of a neighbourhoods are identified. For instance, using threshold values for the embodied emission intensity of the building stock of a neighbourhood could be implemented as a guideline to design the neighbourhood and control the embodied emissions from the building stock.


Corio, Sara (2019) Microclimatic assessment of a university campus in Norway. Sustainable strategies and design solutions to enhance thermal comfort.
Master Thesis,

Master Thesis,
NTNU, Trondheim,

Building, transportation, and human activities are main sources to generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in neighbourhood. In order to reduce GHG emissions in neighbourhoods, architects plays an important role particularly in the early design phase since this is when the architect has the greatest opportunity to make design decisions that directly lead to a reduction in the GHG associated with the consumption of energy and embodied emissions of materials used in zero emission neighbourhoods. However, it is not easy for architects to easily understand and visualise how their design contributes to the overall GHG emissions for the neighbourhood since the origin of the emission is out of architectural scope. Thus, this thesis develops a tool visualizing the relationship between the neighbourhood design and GHG emissions, which can be easily utilized by architects.
This thesis is aligned with the Research centre on Zero Emission Neighbourhoods in Smart Cities (FME-ZEN). A ZEN is defined as a group of interconnected buildings with associated infrastructure, located within a confined geographical area, aiming at reducing its direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions towards zero. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential environmental impacts of a product or service system throughout its life cycle. The methodology was initially developed and used for zero emission buildings and has now been expanded to include zero emission neighbourhoods (ZENs).
The FME-ZEN research centre has already developed a set of ZEN assessment criteria and key performance indicators (KPIs) that can quantify and qualify neighbourhood performance. This work defined the new criteria and indicators based on KPIs of ZEN and other assessment tools in order to apply to the visual tool developed in this work.
The main objective of this thesis is to develop a conceptual visual tool and User Interface which enable architects to holistically integrate quantitative and qualitative assessments of GHG emissions in the decision-making process considering neighbourhood-oriented designs based on the ZEN KPIs. The visual tool was developed in main two platforms (small-neighbourhood platform and large-neighbourhood platform). The small-neighbourhood platform visualises building energy performance and the GHG emissions as a quantitative assessment tool while the large-neighbourhood platform displays urban information related with the emissions as a qualitative assessment tool. The platforms of this thesis as a conceptual assessment tool do not develop the actual interconnection with the computing tools for the GHG emission assessment. However, as one of the contributions of this thesis, proper tools and database are selected and their detailed connection plan is established for practical use of the dashboard in near future.
Through the case study of Nidarvoll Skole in Trondheim region of Norway, this thesis shows how the new school design is associated with GHG emissions and how the relationships can be effectively visualised to help the decision-making process for architectural design toward zero-emission neighbourhoods. By using the visual tool developed in this thesis, the most environmentally friendly design option was able to be selected, which delivers less energy consumption and CO2 emission, compared to the original school design. The savings in the two KPIs reached to 20,508 kWh/yr and 1,871 kgCO2eq/yr respectively, compared to other design options.


Korsnes, Marius (2019) Wind and Solar Energy Transition in China
New York: Routledge,

Woods, R., Berker, T., Baer, D. & Bø, L. A. (2019) ZEN living labs definition, ideas, and examples
ZEN Report 18,
NTNU/SINTEF,

Popular summary in English:

(Scroll nedover for norsk sammendrag)

Living labs are user centred initiatives where knowledge production involves individuals or user groups
affected by sustainable transitions. The FME Research Centre on Zero Emission Neighbourhoods in
Smart Cities (ZEN) has chosen living labs to secure user engagement and as a framework for the
organisation of user involvement in pilot projects. The report presents three main elements, firstly the
ZEN understanding of what a living lab is and how it may be applied within a ZEN neighbourhood.
Secondly, it offers examples of living labs that have inspired the ZEN use of the living lab concept, and
thirdly, it provides insight into how user participation has already taken place within ZEN pilot
neighbourhoods.

Historical and current applications of living labs are presented in the report, underlining the potential of
using the ZEN living lab concept. A ZEN living lab is an open, inclusive space that supports user
engagement with ZEN pilot projects, bridging the gap between the social and technical context. A ZEN
living lab should function as a creative arena for knowledge exchange, between people, places, and
technology. An arena that should ideally highlight learning processes. The ZEN living lab concept
includes four main elements:

1. Representatives from the different user groups affected by the sustainable neighbourhood
transition proposed by ZEN.
2. A clearly defined geographical place.
3. A set of iterative activities.
4. An experimental format based on the challenges and needs of the neighbourhood.

The definition of zero emission neighbourhoods applied by the ZEN Centre implies technical solutions
to the reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions. This definition implies a target-based application of
the living lab methodology: the testing of technical solutions as a means to achieve innovations within
the construction industry or the energy sector. The ZEN living lab concept proposes as less target based
understanding of the pilot projects, because any application of the living lab concept should not lose
sight of the primary aim, which is engaging with the user groups who will be affected by the changes
implied by the introduction of zero emission technology. This should take place in an open and inclusive
process where the results may be learned from but not necessarily measured.

 

Norsk sammendrag:

Living labs er brukersentrerte tiltak som har mål om å involvere ulike individer eller brukergrupper i
tekniske eller bærekraftig endringer i samfunnet. The FME Research Centre on Zero Emission
Neighbourhoods in Smart Cities (ZEN) har valgt living labs som et format til å organisere og sikre
brukerengasjement i pilotprosjekter. Hovedformålene med bruk av living labs i ZEN-pilotprosjekter er
å øke forståelsen blant ulike brukergrupper for ZENs målsettinger og til å støtte arbeidet med å realisere
bærekraftige endringer. Rapporten presenterer ZEN-definisjonen av hva en living lab er, og hvordan
den kan brukes i et ZEN-pilotområde. Rapporten gir også innsikt i brukermedvirkningsprosesser som
allerede har funnet sted innenfor ZEN-pilotområder og presenterer eksempler på living labs som har
inspirert ZEN-bruk av laboratoriekonseptet.

Rapporten understreker potensialet for å bruke ZEN living lab-konseptet. En ZEN living lab er et åpent
inkluderende format som støtter brukerengasjement i ZEN-pilotprosjekter. Hensikten med å benytte
living lab-konseptet er å bygge bro mellom den sosiale og tekniske konteksten. En ZEN living lab skal
fungere som en kreativ arena for kunnskapsutveksling mellom mennesker, steder og teknologi. En arena
som ideelt sett bør gir rom for læringsprosesser. En ZEN living lab skal inneholde fire hovedelementer:

1. Representanter fra de ulike brukergruppene som er berørt av bærekraftige endringer foreslått av ZEN.
2. Et klart definert geografisk sted.
4. Et sett av iterative aktiviteter.
3. Et eksperimentelt format basert på utfordringene og behovene i pilotprosjektet.

ZEN-definisjonen av null-utslippsområder fokuserer på tekniske løsninger for reduksjon av
energiforbruk og CO2-utslipp. Det er derfor en tendens til å benytte en målbasert living lab metodikk,
som testing av tekniske løsninger, som et middel for å oppnå innovasjoner innen byggebransjen eller
energisektoren. Enhver anvendelse av ZEN living lab konseptet bør imidlertid ikke miste fokuset på det
primære målet, som er å engasjere brukergruppene som vil bli påvirket av endringene som følger med
innføringen av nullutslippsteknologi. Dette bør være i form av en åpen og inkluderende prosess.


Backe, S., Sørensen, Å. L., Pinel, D., Clauß, J. Lausselet, C., & Woods, R. (2019) Consequences of local energy supply in Norway – A case study on the ZEN pilot project Campus Evenstad
ZEN Report 17,
NTNU/SINTEF,

Popular summary in English:

(Scroll nedover for norsk sammendrag)

 

Consequences and opportunities of local energy supply at Campus Evenstad

This report evaluates Campus Evenstad towards becoming a ZEN. The goal is to present which
measures are most relevant to realize ZEN goals related to energy and develop an understanding of
potential, consequences, value, and status related to operations and investments in the energy system
at Campus Evenstad. We evaluate consequences of achieving different degrees of on-site supply of
renewable energy. Four aspects are evaluated for the energy system: (1) Value creation and regulatory
framework, (2) future investments, (3) operational control and optimization, and (4) emission
reductions.

Local energy supply is most valuable when consumed in the neighborhood

Local power supply generates economic value mainly through saved costs of reduced grid import (i.e.
delivered electricity to the neighbourhood). Saved costs are achieved due to (1) less delivered
electricity, (2) reduced grid tariff, and (3) reduced taxes and levies as the billing is based on net
metering of delivered electricity.

We have investigated future investments in the energy system at Campus Evenstad by using a linear
programming model. The results show that investments in more PV is the most cost-efficient way of
achieving annual compensation of emissions. In addition, operational control through planned
charging of battery and electric vehicles or pre-heating space and water to reduce peak loads and
minimize operational costs should be prioritized.

Campus Evenstad should aim at self-consuming local energy resources to minimize emissions. This is
because the local energy resources are based on renewable resources that replaces energy supply based
on fossil fuels other places in Europe.

This report can be used to support decisions for Statsbygg at Campus Evenstad on its way towards
ZEN. More general, consequences of energy choices in a ZEN is investigated and will be relevant for
other ZEN partners. The report incorporates several work packages in FME ZEN and connects
economic, operational, and technical aspects in the development of a Zero Emission Neighbourhood.

 

Norsk sammendrag:

Konsekvenser og muligheter knyttet til lokal energiforsyning på Campus Evenstad

Denne rapporten vurderer Campus Evenstad på veien mot ZEN. Hensikten med rapporten er å vurdere
hvilke tiltak som er relevante fremover for å realisere energimål knyttet til ZEN, og den skal gi en
forståelse for potensial, konsekvens, verdi og status knyttet til ulike tiltak relatert til drift og
investeringer i energisystemet på Campus Evenstad. Vi trekker blant annet frem konsekvenser av ulik
grad av selvforsynt fornybar energi. Fire faktorer vurderes for energisystemet: (1) Verdiskaping og
regulatorisk rammeverk, (2) fremtidige investeringer, (3) driftsoptimalisering og styringssystemer og
(4) utslippsreduksjoner.

Lokal energiproduksjon er mest verdifull om den brukes innenfor nabolaget

Lokal elektrisitetsforsyning skaper økonomisk verdi hovedsakelig gjennom sparte kostnader som følge
av mindre behov for strømimport (i.e. levert elektrisitet til nabolaget). Det skapes verdi både gjennom
(1) redusert levert strøm, (2) redusert nettleie og (3) øvrige reduserte elavgifter siden alle disse leddene
av strømregningen baseres på netto strømforbruk.

Vi har undersøkt potensielle fremtidige investeringer i energisystemet for Campus Evenstad ved hjelp
av en optimeringsmodell. Våre analyser antyder at den mest kostnadseffektive måten å oppnå årlig
kompensering av utslipp på er gjennom investeringer i flere solceller. I tillegg bør driftsoptimalisering
gjennom planlagt ladning av batteri og elbiler eller foroppvarming av rom og vann for å redusere
topplaster og minimere driftskostnader prioriteres fremover.

Campus Evenstad bør i størst mulig grad benytte lokale enheter ved energiforsyning for å minimere
utslipp. Denne påstanden kan forsvares ved at de lokale enhetene kun er driftet på fornybare
energikilder som erstatter energi produsert med fossile energikilder andre steder i Europa.
Rapporten kan brukes til å støtte videre beslutninger for Statsbygg på Campus Evenstad på veien mot
ZEN. Den gir også innsikt i konsekvenser av energivalg generelt i ZEN som er relevant for øvrige
ZEN-partnere. Arbeidet spenner på tvers av ulike fagfelt innenfor FME ZEN og binder sammen
kunnskap knyttet til økonomiske, driftsmessige og tekniske aspekter ved utviklingen av et
nullutslippsnabolag.


Nielsen, B. F., Gohari, S., Glicher, E., Baer, D., & Situmorang, W. Z. (2019) Achieving citizen participation in smart cities: Five cross-roads in the planning of the +cityxChange project in Trondheim
Conference proceedings,
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Smart Cities in Seoul from July 17 – 19, 2019. (ICSC1),

Nielsen, B. F., Baer, D., Gohari, S. & Junker, E. (2019) The Potential of Design Thinking for Tackling the “Wicked Problems” of the Smart City
Conference proceedings,
Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society ,

E3S Web of Conferences,
volume 111,

Abstract

Energy flexibility of buildings can be used to reduce energy use and costs, peak power, CO2eq- emissions or to increase self-consumption of on-site electricity generation. Thermal mass activation proved to have a large potential for energy flexible operation. The indoor temperature is then allowed to fluctuate between a minimum and maximum value.

Many studies investigating thermal mass activation consider electric radiators. Nevertheless, these studies most often assume that radiators modulate their emitted power, while, in reality, they are typically operated using thermostat (on-off) control.

Firstly, this article aims at comparing the energy flexibility potential of thermostat and P-controls for Norwegian detached houses using detailed dynamic simulations (here IDA ICE). It is evaluated whether the thermostat converges to a P-control for a large number of identical buildings. As the buildings are getting better insulated, the impact of internal heat gains (IHG) becomes increasingly important. Therefore, the influence of different IHG profiles has been evaluated in the context of energy flexibility. Secondly, most studies about energy flexibility consider a single indoor temperature. This is questionable in residential buildings where people may want different temperature zones. This is critical in Norway where many occupants want cold bedrooms (~16°C) during winter time and open bedroom windows for this purpose.

This article answers to these questions for two different building insulation levels and two construction modes (heavy and lightweight).


Conference proceedings,
Advanced Studies in Energy Efficiency and Built Environment for Developing Countries Proceedings of IEREK Conferences: Improving Sustainability Concept in Developing Countries (ISCDC-2) ,

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to assess the gaps and needs for net-zero energy buildings (NZEBS) design and implementations in MENA Region, particularly in Egypt. The paper reviews current government efforts and regulations on energy efficiency in buildings, the academic efforts in developing NZEBs concept, as well as challenges and barriers in building design phases.

For illustration, the paper summarized study undertaken to analyze the potential challenges and opportunities for implement (NZEBs) in Egypt as an example of Mena region. Two case studies in Mena region E-JUST campus in Egypt and MASDAR City in UAE had been analyzed. The review and case studies show a lack of energy performance in Egyptian buildings code and optimization calculation methods, as well as limited numbers of academic work for NZEBs which studied the Egyptian case.

It is concluded that the current building codes and laws need to be upgraded to include the energy performance of buildings requirements, a database for buildings materials need to be developed with studies to the cost optimal for different buildings type in Egypt, one the challenges of the NZEBs in is the vernacular environment and enhancing the implementation procedures.


Frontiers in Built Environment,
volume 5,
issue 97,

Summary

Optimal ventilation strategies are fundamental to achieve net/nearly-zero energy buildings.

In this study, three hybrid ventilation control strategies are proposed to minimize the cooling need in an open-plan office building, located in the center of Glasgow (Scotland). The performance of the three proposals is assessed by IDA ICE (a whole building performance simulation tool) and compared to a traditional fully mechanical ventilation system.

The performance comparison includes different criteria (i.e., indoor temperature and predicated percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) for assessing the indoor comfort and CO2 level for assessing the indoor air quality).

The results show that the three proposed hybrid ventilation strategies are able to minimize the cooling need to zero. They can also imply a drastic reduction of AHU heating power, compared with a mechanical ventilation system without heat recovery (or with low efficiency heat recovery). In addition, they significantly save the fan energy.

The only drawback of the proposed strategies is that they might increase the space heating demand. For instance, the first and second strategies save about 75% and 50% of AHU (air handling unit) fan energy; however, the space heating increases by about 4.2 and 2.2 kWh/m2a, respectively. The third strategy features as the best proposal because it saves around 68% of fan energy with less increase (1.3 kWh/m2a) in space heating demand. Moreover, it ensures higher thermal comfort and indoor air quality levels compared to the first and second proposals.


Building and Environment,
volume 148,
pages 44-54,

Abstract

Registration, identification, and re-creation of an indoor occupant’s actions are challenges in the field of building energy performance. Commonly used measurement technologies are capable of capturing partial information regarding the occupants’ activity.

However, the combination of all existing inputs cannot grant access to a satisfying description of occupant behaviour that allows capturing profiles of occupants’ intentions and habits. It seems that there is a missing type of data that could be used as a connection platform for already existing inputs.

To connect existing data sets, there is a need to deploy a monitoring method that can identify particular individuals; however, it must do so while still providing a certain level of privacy among the monitored occupants. Fulfilment of these standards can be achieved through the use of the depth registration technique.

The entertainment industry popularized this registration technique, but this registration method has many other applications in the fields of medicine and computer vision. The most commonly used device (Microsoft Kinect) delivers high-frequency sampling (up to 30 Hz) and a moderate measurement range (up to 5 m), which allows its usage in the monitoring of medium-sized indoor spaces.

The delivered input data do not allow for the direct identification of the monitored person, and it does not require any interaction from the occupants to initialise the monitoring procedure. Due to these reasons, the potential of this measurement method was explored in terms of becoming an in situ indoor occupant behaviour monitoring technique.